This is the documentation of CoPro, a machine-learning tool for conflict risk projections.

A software description paper was published in JOSS.

Main goal

With CoPro it is possible to apply machine-learning techniques to make projections of future areas at risk. CoPro was developed with a rather clear application in mind, unravelling the interplay of socio-economic development, climate change, and conflict occurrence. Nevertheless, we put a lot of emphasis on making it flexible. We hope that other, related questions about climate and conflict can be tackled as well, and that process understanding is deepened further.


  • Jannis M. Hoch (Utrecht University)

  • Sophie de Bruin (Utrecht University, PBL)

  • Niko Wanders (Utrecht University)

Corresponding author: Jannis M. Hoch (

Indices and tables